A small town of Baturyn which was founded in the 11th-12th centuries (according to the archeologists’ data) is located in Chernigov region. It is hard to imagine that this city played an important role, that in the territory of Baturyn the events occurred, which left traces on the modern Ukraine and Europe history and that this city was a few steps from being a capital of Ukraine.
Since 1660 the town of Baturyn really was Hetman's capital of Ukraine. Its luxury level was even equal to Kiev. This city went down in history not only as Hetman's capital but also due to the events occurred at the end of 17th century – in the beginning of 18th century in which Ivan Mazepa (Ukrainian state and political figure and Hetman of left-bank Ukraine) took part.
In those days Baturyn considered to be a big industrial city. It had a foundry and powder mill, the largest in Ukraine horse farm and food base. Buildings, churches were built there; industrial arts and trade were flourishing. Population of Baturyn included more than 20000 people. There were 40 churches and 2 monasteries there. The powder depot of Baturyn was considered the largest one in Eastern Europe. It supplied the needs of the Moscow Army. The high-society parties were conducted, Orthodox churches were built, Moscow and other foreign governors came there to visit Hetman. Feeling continuous and increasing pressure on Ukraine liberty from Moscow Ivan Mazepa made a decision to get rid of Moscow impact. He decided to unite with Carl XІІ but the Russian tsar Peter І ordered his army to capture Baturyn and the town was destroyed in 1708 in a fire loosing its glory and perspectives of hetman’s Ukraine.
Baturyn was in decline for many years. It was recovered but it has never been a capital yet. Today there is a reserve in the territory of Baturyn. It area is 57 hectares and it includes 39 objects which have archeological, environmental, historical, architectural and national importance. Some objects came back to Hetman Mazepa time who lived there for 30 years. He took a position of Hetman for 21 years. The famous sights of the reserve include a palace of the last Hetman of Ukraine - Kirill Razumovsky, built by the project of the outstanding Scotland architect Charles Cameron. Razumovsky palace is the only building built by Charles Cameron in Ukraine. There are only a few palaces of the same artistic level in Ukraine. You can see Voznesenskaya church in the territory of Baturyn fortress, burial vault of the last Hetman built in the traditions of Ukrainian national architecture, a court house of the left-bank Ukraine which is today called by the name Vasily Kochubey, judge general. There is Svyato-Nikolaevsky Krupitsky monastery there which was built prior to Mongol-Tatar invasion at the place where the icon of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker appeared. There is a landscape park in Baturyn. Baturyn fortress was built in the 11th century. The reserve exhibits include Cossack arms, coins and icons and also a collection of pictures, sculptures, engravings and embroidered shirts of the 11th century.
The first in the world frame hive was invented in Baturyn.
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